So, if you've read and disgested the open-source netshell-history (above), you now understand why those of us who are open-source advocates prefer Google's open-source-based 'Android' OS to Apple's 'iOS'. We're NOT claiming Android is functionally better or more popular...but rather we're just paying tribute to the fact that Google continues to make full source code available for their Android OS, while Apple continues to engineer their smartphone/tablet "iOS" operating system using closed, proprietary methodologies.
Similarly, the open-source nature of the Linux OS continues to benefit serious academics and developers in software engineering. It is the paradigm example of an open-source product.
Ok, read this relevant real-world article: a comparison of Apple iOS (closed-source) vs Google Android OS(open-source)Android vs iOS
I hope you took the time to read thru that writeup. This too is all about why open-source software is so important and why the practice of issuing software patents really ought to be discontinued.
The bottom line is that his story shows how easy it is for some over-zealous lawyers to confuse things to the point where a relatively naive and innocent creative person can run afoul of our laws and see only one way out. (Sigh.)
Ok, the deck got stacked, and still is, on having just a TWO-party setup. In every state I've voted in, you (must) declare which of two parties you'll be voting in (in the primaries). Since neither party is even close to having all the correct answers, I've always declared/registered myself as an 'Independent', but then you gotta remember to switch your declaration to one or the other, if/when you plan to vote in one of the primaries. No problem, up in NH, iirc, you can still make the switch on primary-voting day...right at the polling place. ("Live free or die", it says on the license-places.) But, when we lived down in Florida full-time, I showed up to vote, and learned I'd just been screwed! Seems you gotta have the 'look-ahead feature'...and go/do your switched-declaration AHEAD of time. I tried telling myself "I didn't want it anyway" (to vote in the primary. But, I DID want to!) So the system IS rigged somewhat...someplaces.
Let's move on, to the Electoral College issue. Your test question is: "How many of the 50 states are NOT ''winner-take-all"? The (surprising!) answer is: Just TWO! (Maine and Nebraska...they apportion the popular vote to the party-voting-members, who will attend and vote to select that party's candidate at the party-convention.)
So, now contemplate the ramifications of this rule! This is why we have RED and BLUE states...and why the TURNOUT in the national election is so low! The large state of California is quite BLUE. So, say you were planning to vote REPUBLICAN in that DEMOCRAT-leaning state. Or conversely, say you live in Oklahoma, and were thinking of voting for the DEMOCRAT in that REPUBLICAN-leaning state. The research data on this thesis indicate that what happens is that many such voters suddenly realize that all of the votes in their state's electoral college are gonna be cast against their choice, so that they tend to say to themself "F*ck it...I got better things to do than spend time in the voting line...why bother...my preference isn't at all likely to win....I can rest assured that ALL my state's electoral votes are gonna go to the person who I am NOT planning to vote for."
If you care about the exact details, the actual data shows that there was a "negative zero.point-five [ -0.5 ] statistical correlation" in the 2016 presidential election, between turnout in the red-est and blue-est states, and turnout in closely-balanced (aka ''swing" / "purple" states). [ Here's a math-statistics review in layman's terms: Correlations can range from negative one-point-zero (-1.0) to positive one-point-zero (+1.0). A 0.0 correlation thus means 'no correlation/no-relationship', whereas a 1.0 means 'exactly-correlated'. When variables are plus/positively correlated, it means the values move in same direction with each other. When variables are minus/negatively- correlated, the values move in opposite directions from each other. ]
Ergo: If we were to get rid of the electoral college (and switch to just having the popular vote of the whole country determine the winner), the voter turnout in America would thus IMPROVE significantly! This idea is a no-brainer...let's go make it happen. (To do this, each state needs to separately vote to drop out of using the electoral college, and three-fourths (38 of 50) of the states would need vote for that, to amend the constitution to declare the electoral college null and void.)
The whitewater came last...which I began at age 52. Long before that, I had acquired both private-pilot and sailplane-pilot licenses, made 380+ skydives (never even needing to deploy that "reserve" parachute), and co-owned a 33-foot racing sailboat, which we sailed in Lake Winnepisaukee, and in the Atlantic, off both the Maine and Florida coasts.
It was the whitewater-kayaking that TRULY resonated. After graduating into class IV water, some sort of Zen-like experience began happening. You can get to a calm state mentally/normal-breath-rate, even while bombing thru big-water rapids.What a dance it is